Multiracial-heritage awareness and personal affiliation: Development and validation of a new measure to assess identity in people of mixed-race descent
The Multiracial-Heritage Awareness and Personal Affiliation (M-HAPA) Theory was proposed to account for mixed race identity. M-HAPA Theory suggests that mixed race identity could be conceptualized by three identity types: Marginal Identity Status, in which the individual does not affiliate with any of the racial groups in their heritage; Singular Identity Status, in which an individual affiliates solely with one racial group in their heritage; and Integrated Identity Status, in which the mixed race individual integrates many racial groups into their identity. ^ A self-report measure (M-HAPAs), based on the M-HAPA Theory, was devised and administered to a diverse group of 364 multiracial individuals. Participants were recruited through three major universities in Hawaii. Psychometric properties of the measure were evaluated; the new instrument demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that though both 3- and 4-factor models were interpretable, the extraction of the 4-factor model was indicated. Further examination of the results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed that Integrated Identity Status was composed of two sub-types: the Combinatory Factor, in which the mixed race individual integrates their affiliations with all of the racial groups in their heritage into their identity; and the Universality Factor, in which the individual identifies with the commonalities among all racial groups. ^ Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the participants' responses on the M-HAPAs to measures of ethnic identity, ego identity, self-esteem and social desirability. The findings were, in general, consistent with hypotheses drawn from the preponderance of literature that suggested relationships between these variables. The results of the current study lend support to the validity of the proposed Multiracial-Heritage Awareness and Personal Affiliation Theory. ^
Psychology, Social|Psychology, Developmental|Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies|Psychology, Psychometrics
"Multiracial-heritage awareness and personal affiliation: Development and validation of a new measure to assess identity in people of mixed-race descent"
(January 1, 2003).
ETD Collection for Fordham University.