Attachment classification, parental bonding and parental authority as they relate to anxiety, depression, and self -efficacy from a multicultural perspective
204 Black American, Asian American, Latino American, and White American college students were recruited from local suburban and urban colleges to participate in this study. The sample of participants included ethnically and socioeconomically diverse college students who were living in the New York City metropolitan area, and who were between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed various questionnaires (i.e., Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Parental Authority Questionnaire) about their childhood relationships with their parents to determine if and how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) influenced the relationship between child-parent attachment, parental bonding, parental authority and psychological functioning and self-efficacy. For all ethnicities, high secure attachment, optimal parental bonding, and authoritative parenting were associated with better psychological functioning and higher self-efficacy. For all ethnicities, higher SES was correlated with more secure attachment, more optimal bonding, and more authoritative parenting. Also, participants from different racial/ethnic backgrounds reported that their parents implemented different levels of parental authority during their childhood. More American ethnic minority participants who reported being raised with more authoritarian parenting methods reported having a secure relationship with their parents than did White American participants who also reported being raised with more authoritarian methods. ^
Psychology, Clinical|Sociology, Individual and Family Studies|Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies
Mason, Lauren K, "Attachment classification, parental bonding and parental authority as they relate to anxiety, depression, and self -efficacy from a multicultural perspective" (2004). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI3140901.