An exploration of test taker, rater, and item facets of the writing section of TOEFL using many-facet Rasch measurement
The goal of this study was to examine rater effects in the writing section of the TOEFL exam. Building on the Many-facet Rasch measurement methodology, the focus was on rater main effects as well as 2-way interactions between raters and the other facets, specifically the test takers and items. Another goal was to examine the 6-point rating scale that was used by the raters to score the writing item. Yet, an additional goal was to investigate differential rater functioning related to test taker gender. Results of this study showed that raters differed significantly in the severity with which they rated test takers' writing responses; were fairly consistent in their overall ratings; and as a group, were subject to gender bias.^
Korenovska, Liliya, "An exploration of test taker, rater, and item facets of the writing section of TOEFL using many-facet Rasch measurement" (2013). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI3563404.