THE EFFECTS OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS GROUPS ON LOCUS OF CONTROL, SELF-CONCEPT, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, AND ATTENDANCE IN AN URBAN HIGH SCHOOL
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Transactional Analysis group counseling on a group of Black students in an urban high school. The research was specifically interested in measuring the effects of the treatment on locus of control, self-concept, academic achievement, and school attendance.^ The sample population consisted of 57 freshman students who had failed at least three major subjects during their freshman term. They were randomly assigned to a control group, a placebo group, and two experimental groups. The groups met four times a week for 40 minutes during a 12 week period during the fall semester. The students were given pre- and posttests using the Rotter I-E Scale and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the four groups. Pre- and postmeasures for academic achievement and school attendance were obtained by comparing the grade-point-averages and the number of unexcused absences for the term preceding the fall semester with the grade-point-averages and the number of unexcused absences at the end of the fall semester.^ The students in the two experimental groups were exposed to group counseling utilizing the principles of Transactional Analysis. The placebo group was also exposed to group counseling but instead of TA, the focus was centered around themes that were developed by the group leader and by members of the group.^ Four hypotheses were developed to determine whether the groups differed significantly with respect to locus of control, self-concept, academic achievement, and school attendance. The hypotheses were examined by utilizing the analysis of variance, the analysis of covariance, and post hoc comparisons. Analysis of variance procedures were administered with respect to the pretest scores to determine whether the four groups were equivalent with respect to locus of control, self-concept, academic achievement, and school attendance. The four groups did not differ significantly on any of the pretest measures. The analysis of covariance was used to determine whether significant differences existed between the four groups on the post-measures. The ANCOVA reflected significant differences between the four groups for each of the dependent variables. Post hoc comparisons were then utilized to determine which groups were significantly different. The results of the post hoc analysis were as follows: (1) The two experimental groups were significantly more internal than the control group at the .01 level. (2) One of the experimental groups and the placebo group made significant improvements in self-concept when compared to the control group at the .01 level. (3) The two experimental groups showed significant improvements in academic achievement when compared to the control group at the .01 level. The placebo group achieved significantly better results than the control group at the .05 level. (4) The two experimental groups made significant improvements in school attendance when compared to the control group at the .05 level. The placebo group made significant improvements in school attendance when compared to the control group at the .01 level.^ The findings in this research indicated that the TA group experience was an appropriate model for urban Black high school students. The groups exposed to TA made significant improvements in internal locus of control, academic achievement, and school attendance. The results for self-concept were somewhat mixed with only one of the two experimental groups achieving significantly different results from the control group. With the exception of locus of control, the theme centered group (placebo) proved as effective as the TA group. ^
ALLWOOD, LYNDON VERNON, "THE EFFECTS OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS GROUPS ON LOCUS OF CONTROL, SELF-CONCEPT, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, AND ATTENDANCE IN AN URBAN HIGH SCHOOL" (1981). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI8109057.