IMPLEMENTING FEDERAL EDUCATIONAL POLICY: TITLE IX AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS

MARSHA A. COHEN MENAHEM, Fordham University

Abstract

The implementation of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 in the New York Public Schools was the focus of a case study which traced the effects of the mandate on the promotion of women into supervision and administration. Two models of policy analysis were utilized: the Pressman-Wildavsky decision point analysis and the Bardach typography of games. Conclusions were drawn concerning the impact of Title IX on aspiring women administrators and the utility of the analytical models. Recommendations were made for improving the implementation of federal educational policy.^ The Pressman-Wildavsky decision point analysis identified the major junctures of joint action necessary for Title IX's realization. At each decision point, the absence of consensus or a grassroot support system facilitated the contravention of the law's objectives by opposing political antagonists. This resulted in a weakened mandate which reduced its utility as a legal vehicle for women to gain entry into educational management.^ The Bardach model explored a number of implementation strategies on the national, state, and local levels which subverted the goals, resources, and administration of the legislation. An analysis of these strategies demonstrated that Title IX had fallen victim to changing national priorities and incipient local political forces.^ The Wildavsky-Pressman model established the non-implementation of Title IX, while the Bardach model elaborated the causal factors. More traditional conceptualizations of policy science, such as systems' analysis and the incremental approach, supported the conclusions reached by the study. Recommendations were made to utilize the analytic models for future policy studies or to blend the two frameworks into a singular model.^ The results of the case study suggested that the implementation of Title IX had not promoted upward career mobility for women in elementary and secondary education. It was strongly recommended that women seeking redress from educational employment discrimination do so through other legislative avenues, such as Title VII, until Title IX's implementation was improved. Analyses indicate that the implementation of federal educational policy demands skilled implementation strategists who can develop regulations and guidelines, motivate grassroot support systems and design simple, direct implementation plans. In this manner, federal educational policy will have the opportunity to provide for equitable allocation of educational resources as it unfolds in the federal structure. ^

Subject Area

Social sciences education

Recommended Citation

MENAHEM, MARSHA A. COHEN, "IMPLEMENTING FEDERAL EDUCATIONAL POLICY: TITLE IX AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS" (1982). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI8213613.
http://fordham.bepress.com/dissertations/AAI8213613

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