THE APPEARANCE AND PRODUCTION OF VIRUS PARTICLES IN THE CALYX REGION OF THE LATERAL OVIDUCT DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF THE PARASITOID HYPOSOTER EXIGUAE (VIERECK) (HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE)
This study describes the development of the female reproductive system and the production of virus particles in the calyx region of Hyposoter exiguae, an endoparasitoid of lepidopterous larvae.^ In the prepupal stage, each ovary consists of 16 ovarioles with oogonia which begin to differentiate into oocytes and nurse cells during the pupal stage. Primitive lateral oviducts extend from the bases of the ovaries and contact the branches of the common oviduct in the median region of the 10th sternite. These mesodermal lateral oviducts are replaced by the branches of the common oviduct during the prepupal stage. The anterior enlarged region of each branch of the common oviduct develops into the calyx in the early pupal stage. The bursa copulatrix and the spermatheca originate as invaginations of the integument of the 11th sternite. The primordia of the accessory glands are invaginations of the 12th sternite.^ The walls of the calyx consist of large, conical epithelial cells with irregularly shaped nuclei occupying a major portion of the cell volume. The calyx cell nuclei produce many virus particles, with apparently no pathological effects on the female. To determine the possible origin and morphogenesis of the virus particles, ultra-structural observations of the calyx region were made from the pupal through the adult stage. Virus particles appear to invade the pupal calyx cells from the basal area nearest the hemocoel, and, during the pupal stage, they are found inside the muscular sheath and the calyx cell cytoplasm. Morphogenesis of virus particles begins in the intracocoon imago stage, with the appearance of virogenic stromata in the nuclei of calyx cells. This event is followed by synthesis of empty membranes and mature particles from the stromata, ca. 20 h before adult emergence. At emergence, the nucleus, cytoplasm and lumen of calyx cells are filled with particles. The particles are produced throughout the lifetime of female wasps and appear to leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. The particles exit the cell by budding through the plasma membrane of the microvilli and acquire a second membranous coat in the process. ^
RACHADI, MOHAMED, "THE APPEARANCE AND PRODUCTION OF VIRUS PARTICLES IN THE CALYX REGION OF THE LATERAL OVIDUCT DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF THE PARASITOID HYPOSOTER EXIGUAE (VIERECK) (HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE)" (1983). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI8323545.