# THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGY TRAINING AND VERBALIZATION ON THE MULTIPLICATION FACT PROFICIENCY OF LOW ACHIEVERS

#### Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of the treatment conditions (a) low-abstractness strategy training, high-abstractness strategy training, and rote training, and (b) overt verbalization and no verbalization, on the basic multiplication fact proficiency of low achieving mathematics students. To accomplish this goal two measures of proficiency were employed, accuracy and automatization. In addition the persistence and generalization of effects were measured. The study was conducted with 135 third, fourth, and fifth grade remedial mathematics students drawn from four suburban communities. The treatments were as follows: (a) high-abstractness strategy training without overt verbalization, (b) high-abstractness strategy training with overt verbalization, (c) low-abstractness strategy training without overt verbalization, (d) low-abstractness strategy training with overt verbalization, (e) rote training without overt verbalization, and (f) rote training with overt verbalization.^ Two experimenter constructed tests, the Basic Multiplication Fact Accuracy Test and the Test of Multiplication Fact Automatization, were administered prior to the treatments, immediately following the treatments, and four weeks after the treatments. The high-abstractness and low-abstractness strategy groups performed significantly better on the accuracy measures than the rote training group. The high-abstractness strategy group achieved significantly higher scores on the automatization measure than the rote training group. No main effect was found for overt verbalization, although verbalization interacted with training and test session. Follow-up post-test scores were consistently found to be higher than immediate post-test scores.^ On the basis of the findings it was concluded that (a) low achieving mathematics students are more likely to respond correctly to basic multiplication fact problems when they are taught to use a strategy than when they are simply drilled on the basic facts; (b) low achieving mathematics students are more likely to master basic multiplication facts when they are taught to use a high abstractness strategy than when they are drilled on the facts; (c) the effects of overt verbalization on basic multiplication fact proficiency are unclear, as overt verbalization may interact with the structure of training, the strategy trained, and the cognitive development of the student; and (d) the effects of training are likely to persist over time. ^

#### Subject Area

Education, Educational Psychology

#### Recommended Citation

GREENBERG, EDWARD MARTIN, "THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGY TRAINING AND VERBALIZATION ON THE MULTIPLICATION FACT PROFICIENCY OF LOW ACHIEVERS" (1986). *ETD Collection for Fordham University*. AAI8616822.

http://fordham.bepress.com/dissertations/AAI8616822