AN ANDRAGOGICAL MODEL OF EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION, JOB DESIGN, AND TEACHER MOTIVATION
This study explored the relationships among job design, supervisory behaviors, and teacher motivation. The characteristics of the job of teaching were analyzed to determine their relationship to the internal work motivation of teachers. The behavior of supervisors was studied to determine the relationship between these behaviors and teacher motivation. And, the relationship between supervisory behavior and the design of the job of teaching was examined.^ The characteristics of the job of teaching, based on those defined by J. Richard Hackman as core job dimensions, included skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.^ Supervisory behaviors examined in this study were based on Malcolm Knowles' description of andragogy, or the characteristics of the adult learner. These included encouragement of subordinate growth and self-direction; recognition and respect for subordinates' experience; and creation of a supportive supervisory environment.^ The Job Diagnostic Survey, developed to determine the presence of the core dimensions of job design and their relationships to internal work motivation, was administered to a sample of 207 teachers. From the data, an andragogical quotient was developed to determine the degree to which these teachers perceived their supervisors to use andragogical behaviors.^ Findings supported the theoretical bases of the study. It was found that teachers in the sample with high needs for growth and achievement saw greater meaning in their jobs and assumed greater responsibility for their jobs than did those with low growth needs. It was also found that teachers who perceived a high degree of presence of the core job dimensions were more internally motivated than those who did not. And it was found that teachers with high andragogical quotients perceived a higher degree of presence of the core job dimensions than teachers with low andragogical quotients.^ The achievement motive of growth oriented teachers should be supported. With the development and implementation of an effective job enrichment model for classroom teachers, coupled with an andragogical method of supervision, teachers with high growth and achievement needs will not have to look to other professions to satisfy those needs. ^
NANCY HARRIS ELLIS,
"AN ANDRAGOGICAL MODEL OF EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION, JOB DESIGN, AND TEACHER MOTIVATION"
(January 1, 1986).
ETD Collection for Fordham University.