RECALL ABILITY AND STRATEGY USE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN OF SUPERIOR INTELLIGENCE
This study compared recall and mnemonic strategy use of preschoolers of superior and average intelligence and first graders of average intelligence on two types of memory tasks--play and rote. Three trials of six words each on the two tasks were administered several days apart. Order of task presentation was counterbalanced.^ Results showed that recall on the play and rote tasks did not significantly differ as a function of order of task presentation or group. Significant task differences were found for the gifted preschool group in favor of play recall.^ Group comparisons of strategy use showed that average preschoolers used the strategy of labeling more frequently on both tasks. Use of internal rehearsal was significantly higher among gifted preschoolers and first graders. On the play task, head nodding was more frequent in both preschool groups but gifted preschoolers' rote task use was significantly lower than on play, dropping to the first grader's level. Gifted preschoolers' repetition of sequence of items during retrieval was significantly greater on rote than on play, rising to the first graders' level.^ Internal rehearsal and recall were significantly related on both tasks in the gifted preschool and first grade groups. For gifted preschoolers, labeling and play recall, and repetition of sequences of items during retrieval and rote recall were significantly related. In the average ability preschool group, lip movements and play recall, and head nodding and rote recall were significantly related. A significant negative relationship was found between requests for help during retrieval and rote recall in the average ability preschool group. Analysis of error responses revealed a lower mean number of error responses and percentage of error responses for the gifted preschool group, particularly on the play task.^ Gifted preschoolers showed cognitively advanced strategy selection, effective and flexible strategy use, and superior metacognitive development, reflected in their lower error rate. Gifted preschoolers, more than their average ability CA and MA peers, benefited from the characteristics of a play situation as it elicited task involvement and required application of self-regulatory, metacognitive skills. ^
ROPER, ROBERTA RAMSEY, "RECALL ABILITY AND STRATEGY USE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN OF SUPERIOR INTELLIGENCE" (1987). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI8725687.