Experiential education: The relationship of management systems and leadership effectiveness to the self-actualization of administrative interns in education
The study analyzed the relationship of management systems and leadership effectiveness to the self-actualization of interns in educational administration. The rationale was based on Dewey's philosophy of experience and education and included Maslow's theory of self-actualization, Likert's theory of management systems and Hersey's and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. The research followed a non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design. The testing instruments included Shostrom's POI, Likert's POC, and Hersey's and Blanchard's LEAD-Self, and LEAD-Other. It was hypothesized that participative management systems together with effective leadership result in high levels of self-actualization among administrative interns.^ The results showed that the POI profile for interns in educational administration was in the normal self-actualizing range for adults. The administrative internship significantly increased self-actualization among interns. Significant differences were found in interns' POI scale scores categorized on the basis of high and low POC and LEAD-Other scores. No significant differences were found when LEAD-Self scores were substituted for the LEAD-Other scores. A significant difference existed between the interns' and the host administrators' perceptions of leadership effectiveness. The correlational studies confirmed this perceptual difference. The LEAD-Other scores correlated positively with the POI scale scores; whereas, the LEAD-Self scores correlated negatively with them. Conversely, the LEAD-Other scores correlated negatively with the POC scores; whereas, the LEAD-Self scores correlated positively with the POC scores.^ The administrative internship in education requires a rigorous redefinition. A need exists for a rationale that resolves the academic-experiential dichotomy and raises affective development to the status of cognitive learning. State education officials should accredit host schools as centers for the education of school administrators. University faculty should assist in pairing interns with well-qualified and highly self-actualized school administrators. A research laboratory should be added as a mandatory requirement of the internship. School officials should promote staff involvement, trust, and autonomy in the search for greater self-actualization. ^
Hoshowsky, Christine Mary, "Experiential education: The relationship of management systems and leadership effectiveness to the self-actualization of administrative interns in education" (1988). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI8813576.