The impact of educational reform on supervision of school psychologists and teachers
Changing relationships among staff in schools have been a hallmark of the current educational reform movement. This study analyzes the influence of the reform agenda on supervision of school psychologists, widely employed specialists, and teachers. Included are examination of the roles supervisors and comparison of models of supervision.^ The differences in models of supervision derive from the history of the occupations, tasks for practitioners, expectations for supervisors, and attitudes toward supervision. School psychologist models emphasize master-apprentice supervision, while teacher supervision models also include peer supervision. A trend toward professionalizing teaching and reducing traditional hierarchical supervision for experienced teachers has developed as part of restructuring schools. School psychology supervision has Interpersonal and Best Practice models, while the major teacher supervision models are Clinical, Developmental, Human Resources, and New.^ The theoretical framework utilized for understanding supervisory models interpreted (a) goals in the supervisory process, (b) conceptualization and structure of supervisory plans, (c) implementation methods for effecting changes in supervisees, (d) control techniques for regulating supervisee behavior, and (e) management and decision making by supervisors. Concepts from the models of supervision were compared by a philosophical procedure for interpreting knowledge that considers the relationship of ideas to reality, assesses the logic of the relationship of aspects of models to one another, and weighs the usefulness of the propositions.^ The investigation provided the basis for recommendations for understanding, communication, and making decisions associated with supervision of school psychologists and teachers. The following suggestions were made: (a) availability of same specialty assistance to enhance occupation specific knowledge and skills, (b) use of developmental approaches that are consistent with professional levels and statuses of practitioners, (c) clarification of the goals and approaches of the supervisory model employed, (d) nurturing respect for others who constitute the diverse practitioners in school settings, (e) fostering of supervisors learning successful strategies from one another, and (f) provision by supervisors of a vision of what schooling can be when it is good and leadership that provides the direction in which schools should go in the future. ^
Katz, Gloria Ann, "The impact of educational reform on supervision of school psychologists and teachers" (1993). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI9412137.