Relationships Between Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and E-Cigarette and Cigarette Dependence Among Dual Users
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the U.S. has risen among all ages, including current cigarette smokers. Though there is an established link between cigarette dependence and depressive and anxiety symptoms, there is limited research examining e-cigarettes as they relate to depressive and anxiety symptoms among dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. This study aimed to examine whether depressive and anxiety symptoms are associated with e-cigarette and cigarette dependence among dual users, and how these relationships may be impacted by the frequency of e-cigarette/cigarette use and gender. 534 eligible survey participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and answered a series of questionnaires. Findings show that among dual users, relationships between depressive and anxiety symptoms and e-cigarette/cigarette dependence are significant and change when frequency of e-cigarette/cigarette use and gender are considered. Results show that greater anxiety symptoms are associated with greater e-cigarette dependence and both greater anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with greater cigarette dependence. We also found that among those with greater negative affect, daily and non-daily e-cigarette/cigarette use is significantly associated with e-cigarette and cigarette dependence. In addition, male daily e-cigarette users with greater depressive symptoms report greater cigarette dependence. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature concerning e-cigarette use in addition to dual use, and may better help identify risk factors for dependence among dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes.^
Stockmal, Corinne, "Relationships Between Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and E-Cigarette and Cigarette Dependence Among Dual Users" (2018). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI10816855.