PRINCIPALS' SOCIAL CHARACTER AND LEADERSHIP STYLES
This study explores and describes types of social character, leadership styles, and leadership effectiveness of principals in Title I elementary schools.^ Data for the study were obtained from four sources: (a) The Administrative Role Inventory, which surveyed and tentatively categorized principals' social character orientations (craftsman, companyman, gamesman, jungle fighter); (b) The Administrative Role Questionnaire, which permitted indepth exploration, and categorization of primary and secondary social character orientations; (c) The Educational Aministrative Style Diagnosis Test, which measured principals' self-perceptions, and their teachers' perceptions of unique situational demands, leadership styles, and leadership effectiveness; (d) The Professional Data Fact Sheet, which supplied information about principals' backgrounds, education, and experience.^ The findings of this study add another dimension to the exploration of Maccoby's (1976) social character and Reddin's (1970) leadership styles and leadership effectiveness types. All of Maccoby's social character types and all, except one, of Reddin's leadership styles and leadership effectiveness types were identified within the ranks of the principals studied. Craftsman and gamesman social character types dominated the ranks of this group of principals.^ It was concluded that: (a) the social character, leadership styles, and leadership effectiveness of the principals investigated are interrelated; (b) differences existed between teachers' and principals' perceptions of principals' leadership styles and leadership effectiveness; (c) teachers of principals who led high ranking schools (craftsmen and gamesmen) agreed with their principals' perceptions and perceived them as more effective leaders, while teachers of principals who led low ranking schools disagreed with their principals' perceptions and perceived them as less effective leaders.^ In order to enhance the possibilities of increasing leadership and followership congruence among principals and teachers and to improve principals leadership effectiveness, it is recommended that principals be provided with the means for assessing their leadership styles, leadership effectiveness, and social character orientations. Since recognition, selection, assignment, and evaluation of school principals are crucial factors in the success or failure of schools, it is recommended that top school officials utilize similar assessment methods in order to provide congruence between principals and their leadership situations. ^
TAYLOR, STANLEY, "PRINCIPALS' SOCIAL CHARACTER AND LEADERSHIP STYLES" (1985). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI8600110.